Presentation of AFNIC

What is AFNIC?

AFNIC is the French acronym for "Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération" (the French Network Information Centre). It is a non-profit association founded in December 1997 by the French National Institute for Research in Computer Sciences and Automation (INRIA) and the French government to manage the French domain namespaces (tLD) (.fr and .re). Since 19 February 2010, AFNIC holds the government delegation as the French Registry for domain names under the .fr TLD (ministerial order of 19 February 2010). Since December 6th 2011, AFNIC operates the ultramarine TLDs: .pm (Saint Pierre & Miquelon), .tf (Terres Australes Antartiques Françaises), .wf (Wallis and Futuna) and .yt (Mayotte).

What is AFNIC's role?

AFNIC is the manager of the registry of domain names for the geographical areas of .fr (France), .re (Reunion Island), .pm (St. Pierre and Miquelon), .tf (French Southern and Antarctic Territories), .wf (Wallis and Futuna) and .yt (Mayotte). It operates and maintains the technical infrastructure for managing domain names (DNS) for the naming areas under its responsibility, and ensures accessibility of these domains from anywhere on the Internet. AFNIC also aims to contribute to the development of a secure and stable Internet open to innovation in which the French Internet community continues to play a leading role.

How can I contact AFNIC?

Several ways of contacting us are available:

  • By e-mail to support@afnic.fr or using the online form.
  • By phone 24/7 at +33 1 39 30 83 00 (Support) or by fax (+33 1 39 30 83 01).
  • By post addressed to AFNIC, Immeuble Stephenson, 1 rue Stephenson, 78181 Saint Quentin en Yvelines, France.

We shall reply as soon as possible.

Can I join AFNIC?

Yes. Whether you are a corporation, an AFNIC customer registrar wishing to become a Registrar Member, an individual, association or a national or international institution, you can participate in the life of AFNIC by becoming a member. Membership is subject to a fee which varies depending on the category of membership. These membership fees do not allow you to start a business as a registrar of domain names and does not affect the need to contact a registrar in order to obtain your domain name under the TLDs .fr, .re, .pm, .tf, .wf and .yt.

For further information.

As a member, what am I entitled to?

Online, you have access the Members Area using your username and password. You can also participate in the consultative committees corresponding to your category of membership (registrar or user) as well as in the legal, marketing, communications and technology working groups.

Please check the online calendar for upcoming meetings.

What are the conditions and formalities for becoming a registrar customer for .fr and .re domain names?

A registrar is a corporation that provides its customers with domain name registration services. First of all, please read the Registration Agreement and the rates. AFNIC accredits Registrars according to rules that are non-discriminatory and transparent.

Must we become members of AFNIC to acquire a domain name for ourselves or to resell domain names?

The answer is no in both cases. The right to file a domain name is in no case subject to AFNIC membership. Whatever the applicant (individual, company or community), the request to file a domain name is made through an accredited registrar which is entitled to market the services involved in the registration and activation of a domain name. The purchase of this service does not entail AFNIC membership, which can only be acquired directly from AFNIC.

I am a Registrar customer of AFNIC; where can I find the answers to my questions?

The answers to your administrative and technical questions are grouped together in a FAQ designed especially for you and on the AFNIC operations news page.

Choosing a domain name

What is a domain name?

A domain name is the translation of an IP address into a string of characters that is easier to remember, such as a proper name, trademark, or a combination of keywords. The domain name is used to access Web sites (e.g. afnic.fr) or e-mail addresses (e.g. afnic@afnic.fr).

What is the difference between the .fr or .re TLDs and .com, .net, .org, etc.?

The letters preceded by a period at the end of a domain name indicate the namespace. There are two types of namespace: generic spaces (GLD) created when the Internet was first invented, the best known being .com, .net and .org, and geographical areas, so called because they represent a country, such as .fr (France and overseas departments), .re (Reunion Island), .tf (French Southern and Antarctic territories), .pm (Saint Pierre and Miquelon), .wf (Wallis and Futuna) and .yt (Mayotte).

What does .fr stand for?

The .fr extension is a top level Internet domain (TLD) which refers to the territorial space of France in general (i.e. including its overseas territories). It can be registered by any individual or legal entity living on one of the territories of the European Union, or one of the following countries: Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

More information on the .fr TLD

What does .re stand for?

The .re is a top level Internet domain (TLD) specific to Reunion Island. It can be registered by any individual or legal entity living on one of the territories of the European Union, or one of the following countries: Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

More information on the .re TLD

What does .pm stand for?

The .pm extension is a top level Internet domain (TLD) which refers to the territorial space of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. It can be registered by any individual or legal entity living on one of the territories of the European Union, or one of the following countries: Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

What does .tf stand for?

The .tf is a top level Internet domain (TLD) specific to the French Southern and Antarctic territories. It can be registered by any individual or legal entity living on one of the territories of the European Union, or one of the following countries: Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

What does .wf stand for?

The .wf is a top level Internet domain (TLD) specific to Wallis and Futuna. It can be registered by any individual or legal entity living on one of the territories of the European Union, or one of the following countries: Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

What does .yt stand for?

The .yt is a top level Internet domain (TLD) specific to Mayotte. It can be registered by any individual or legal entity living on one of the territories of the European Union, or one of the following countries: Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

What is the point of choosing a domain name with the .fr, .re, .tf, .pm, .wf or .yt extension?

First of all, choosing a domain name with the .fr, .re, .tf, .pm, .wf or .yt extension enables you to assert your membership in the French national community or speaker of French, or in that of the overseas department. But the benefits are also of a technical nature. AFNIC is particularly vigilant about protecting personal data for individuals and about the quality of its technical management and thus the reliability of the namespaces for which it is responsible.

How much does it cost to register a domain name under a TLD operated by AFNIC ?

The cost of registering a domain name with the .fr, .re, .tf, .pm, .wf and .yt extension is freely set by each registrar, depending on the services (hosting, etc.) involved. You are invited to compare the prices and services offered by accredited registrars. The retail price of an .fr or .re domain name marketed by a Registrar includes a registration fee paid to AFNIC. As at 1 January 2011, the amount charged by AFNIC to the registrar ranges from 4.80 to 5.80 euros depending on the option package chosen by the registrar.

I am a private individual; am I entitled to file a domain name under the .fr or .re TLD?

Yes, since 6 December 2011, an individual living in one of the countries member of Europe and Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Iceland may register a domain name under any TLD operated by AFNIC. The chosen name can be your last name, your first name or a nickname. It can also reflect a hobby, a personal project or a place, except for the names reserved to public organizations and collectivities.

I represent a French or foreign company / association / national or international institution; what are my rights with regard to filing a domain name under the TLDs operated by AFNIC ?

To register a domain name under a TLD operated by AFNIC, you simply need to be located (head office) in one of the countries member of Europe or the following countries: Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Norway or Iceland.

The chosen name may be the name of your organzation, project, trademark or event.

Are there any technical constraints to consider when choosing a domain name ?

On the technical side, an .fr or .re domain name must include at least three and at most 63 characters, chosen from the letters A to Z and the numbers 0 to 9. It is possible to use the hyphen (or em dash) but not spaces, apostrophes, or en dashes (underscore), etc. .

Since 3 May 2012, it is possible to register IDN domain names under all the TLDs operated by Afnic.

For further information, please see the naming charters for the .fr and .re TLDs.

I have chosen a domain name; what are the checks to be made before filing it?

French law and the naming policy defined by AFNIC require that a certain number of simple rules be respected when choosing a domain name. Before filing it with your registrar, make sure that the name you have chosen:

  • does not contain terms that are liable to disrupt public order or morality, or the rights guaranteed by the French Constitution or French law;
  • does not contain terms that may infringe intellectual property rights or personal rights, unless you can demonstrate a legitimate interest in doing so and that you are acting in good faith;
  • is not identical or related to that of the French Republic, of a local authority or group of local authorities, of an institution or a local or national public service, unless you can demonstrate a legitimate interest in doing so and that you are acting in good faith.
  • has not already been registered with AFNIC (to do so, before filing the name, use the search service for domain name availability).
  • complies with the syntactic rules specified in the naming policy
  • is not on the list of terms subject to prior review.

I have chosen a domain name, how can I check that it has not already been filed?

To verify that the domain name you have chosen has not already been filed, use the Whois service on the AFNIC website.

The domain name I have chosen already exists, but ends with another extension (.com, .net, etc.). Can I still file it?

Yes, you can file it. Like trademarks, homonymous domain names can coexist in different namespaces. To date there are 260. The cases of identical domain names in different namespaces are therefore frequent. Before filing your domain name, however, make sure that it does not infringe the rights of third parties (such as companies, trademarks or individuals) eligible to file a domain name in France.

The domain name I have chosen already exists under the .fr .re, .pm, .tf, .wf and .yt. TLD. What should I do?

The rule which applies to the filing of domain names in the French namespace is that of first come, first served. In most cases, we advise you to wait for the name to become available again, or to file a different name, similar to the one you originally selected (for example, by adding a distinctive geographical or personal feature). However, if you think that the registered domain name infringes your rights, you can use one or other of the existing dispute resolution procedures.

Is there a waiting list for domain names already taken?

The answer is no. AFNIC has no waiting list. It is your responsibility to note the anniversary date of the renewal of the domain name you want, and to check on that date if the renewal has taken place or not. You can then try to file it yourself. Please note that a redemption period of 30 days is left to the former holder before the domain name can become available again.

Can I file a domain name solely to protect it?

Yes, subject to satisfying all the conditions for registering a domain name. To do so, you must complete the registration process with your registrar. This will publish the domain name in the Whois directory and thus protect it throughout the effective registration period, indicating that you are the sole holder. A second procedure, that of activation, is required to use this domain name on the Internet (for a website or as the basis for an e-mail address), but it is not mandatory.

How many domain names can I file?

Subject to meeting the eligibility requirements for individuals or organizations, there is no limit to the number of domain names that you can file, including at the same time. Caution: filing a domain name involves the payment of an annual fee to maintain your rights to that name. The amount of the fee is set by your registrar and depends on the services it offers.

Register a domain name

What steps are required to file a domain name?

Filing a domain name is not done directly with AFNIC, but with one of the 800 registrars accredited by AFNIC. Most of them have an online form that provides the information you need to register your domain name. This service is fee-paying and the Registrar is freely to set the rate. For each application, AFNIC invoices a fee to the Registrar.

I have to choose a registrar; can AFNIC advise me?

No, because AFNIC has a duty of neutrality with respect to accredited registrars. To help you in your search, a list of registrars is available on the AFNIC website.

Is there a list of registrars accredited by AFNIC?

Yes, AFNIC provides a public search engine of accredited registrars that can resell domain names under the TLDs it operates. This search engine allows you to filter the results using criteria such as whether you are an individual or a company, and according to your geographic location.

Why can I not register my domain name directly with AFNIC?

The world organization of the management system of domain names makes a distinction between the technical and administrative management of registries, which has been delegated in France to AFNIC for the French namespaces, and the marketing function, attributed to private companies, i.e. the registrars. The latter (i.e. the Registrars) are the exclusive intermediaries between the Registries and the public. As a Registry, AFNIC is not entitled to receive direct requests from individuals or organizations.

I want to file a domain name under the .com or another extension not operated by AFNIC. Who should I contact?

AFNIC is the registry for the French namespaces; the other namespaces, including generic spaces, are managed by other organizations. Your registrar will contact them in order to file a domain name with the .com, .org, .net, and other extensions.

What is the difference between the registration and the activation of a domain name?

Registration is the administrative procedure of filing of a domain name with the Registry manager, via a Registrar. It includes the publication of information regarding the domain name in the Whois directory. Activation is a technical procedure which consists in informing the Internet name servers (DNS) so they can translate the domain name into the IP address of an Internet resource (web server, electronic post office, file server, etc.). At AFNIC, the activation of a domain name involves a ZoneCheck test of the requested nameservers.

How long does it take to register and activate a domain name, respectively?

Subject to validity, registering a domain name under the TLDs operated by AFNIC is done 24/7 through an automated service provided for the registrars by AFNIC. It takes only a few minutes to register, protect and publish a domain name in the Whois directory. If immediate activation has been requested, on average it is done within the hour following the validation of domain name registration. This process involves a technical check.

Life of the domain name after registration

How can I obtain information about my domain name?

AFNIC provides the Whois service on its website. This service allows you to view the public information about your domain name, including the technical contact (your registrar) and if you have not opted for restricted information, the administrative contact and the name of the holder.

I no longer know which registrar manages my domain name. How can I find out?

The name and contact details of your registrar are published in the Whois directory. Type your domain name and choose your extension to display the information.

I did not activate my domain name when registering and I want to do so now. Who should I contact?

To activate a domain name which has already been registered, please contact your registrar. Their contact details are published in the Whois directory. When your request is received, your registrar will send AFNIC a request for a technical update (update_tech). The operation is free of charge.

Is there a time limit for activating a domain name which has been registered?

No, there is no time limit for activating a domain name which has been registered. Make sure, however, that the domain name in question is not at the end of the validity period.

I have activated my domain name and I have opened my website; should I report it to AFNIC?

You are not required to make any declaration to AFNIC. However, if your site uses personal data such as the names or contact details of your visitors, please contact France's data protection authority (CNIL), about the rules that apply depending on your status and your use of these data. For further information, please also see the site of the Program Protection Agency (APP).

When I try to access my website using my domain name, an error message tells me that the server cannot be found. Who should I contact to fix the problem?

Contact your registrar because it is the only one with the technical information needed to solve the problem. It may be, however, that the failure is related to a temporary malfunction of its domain name servers. If you choose to manage your own domain name servers, we advise you to approach a specialised IT provider.

I can neither send nor receive messages with e-mail addresses ending with my domain name. Who should I contact to fix the problem?

Contact your registrar after ensuring that other e-mail addresses, such as those assigned by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) function normally. It may be, however, that the failure is related to a temporary malfunction of its domain name servers. If you choose to manage your own domain name servers, we advise you to approach a specialised IT provider.

I manage my own domain name server and its IP address is going to change. Who should I inform?

Contact your registrar, which is the only body authorised to transmit a request for a technical update to AFNIC (update_tech) on this issue.

My registrar has informed me that the activation or technical update of my domain name is subject to a technical audit by Afnic. What does that mean?

Since December 17th, 2012, Afnic doesn't use this check anymore (with the ZoneCheck tool) for all domain names submitted by registrars involving an activation request or a request for a technical change (update [tech]).

I am changing my Internet service provider / Internet access provider. Must I also change registrars?

No, it is not compulsory in any case. Nothing prevents you from keeping the same Registrar if you change Internet service provider. But remember to warn and, if necessary, apply for a technical update so that the redirect to your new server(s) is successful. A change in service provider (ISP) has no effect at all on your domain name.

I am moving / the person in charge of managing my domain names has changed. How can I update this information?

Contact your registrar or visit their website. You should find a form allowing you to update the administrative information about your domain name, including your address, and the contact details of the administrative contact. If you manage your domain name servers yourself, remember to update the technical contact in case of a change in the person in charge.

I want to change Registrars. How do I go about it, how much will it cost, and what are the consequences for my websites?

To change Registrars, you must first contact the registrar you are about to leave to inform them of your intentions and obtain the Auth_Info code that will allow you to initiate the transfer of the domain name to the new registrar. Without this code, the new registrar cannot make the request to AFNIC to transfer your domain name. Then you must select a new accredited Registrar and request that they carry out the transfer operation with AFNIC. Upon receipt of the transfer order, AFNIC sends a confirmation e-mail to the outgoing and incoming registrar.

To confirm an operation which my registrar has requested to AFNIC, I have to provide the "Auth_Info". What is it? Is it the same as the "holder key"?

The "Auth_Info" is a password associated with your domain name. The code was created when the .fr and.re domain name was registered by the Registrar, who must give you it or allow you to use it. The "Auth_Info" has replaced the old "holder key" procedure since 30 March 2009. It is used to secure transactions and confirm a change in Registrar or an holder change.

Can I transfer or sell my domain name to someone else?

Yes, you are free to transfer your domain name (free of charge or for a fee) to any person or entity that meets the requirements for filing a domain name with the .fr or .re extension. It is up to the person to whom you transfer or resell the domain name to choose a registrar that will be responsible for the Trade operation.

Caution: if the domain name is part of the list of terms subject to prior review, you must submit an application to obtain an authorization code.

What if I no longer want my domain name?

Ask your registrar to request the deletion of your domain name. From the perspective of AFNIC, this operation is free of charge and can be performed at any time. However, you should make sure beforehand that the service contract with your registrar allows you to do so.

For further information, please see our explanatory page.

What is the redemption lead-time or period?

The redemption period is the safety period during which the request to delete a domain name is still reversible. It is only at the end of this period that the domain name you have asked to be deleted falls into the public domain and can be reserved by someone else. The redemption period runs from the date of deletion of the domain name. During this period, no transaction involving a trade or transfer is possible and your domain name is still available for reservation, except for you if you change your mind.

Does the redemption period apply in the case of the deletion by AFNIC of a domain name after a justification procedure, or further to a court order?

No, the deletion redemption time only applies to deletion requests made by the registrar after being requested by the domain holder. In the context of judicial proceedings or as a result of the unsuccessful justification process (reachability et eligibility verification), deletion is immediate.

My domain name is blocked, what does this mean?

Your domain name has been disabled by AFNIC further to a problem. Disabling will delete the corresponding DNS record enabling the link with your Internet resources. A blocked domain name is still published in the Whois directory and still belongs to its holder, but any operation, even technical, is prohibited during the blocking period (except deletion). To know the reasons for the blocking and how to unblock it, contact you registrar as soon as possible.

Some operations are free and others are invoiced by the registrar; can you give me a list of each?

The operations involving technical and administrative updates (change in IP address, update of information about the holder, or the administrative and technical contacts) and deletion requests are carried out free of charge by AFNIC.

Registration, transfer, renewal, restore and recover of a domain name, however, are invoiced by AFNIC to the Registrar which requests them on your behalf. Depending on the circumstances, they may or may not change the expiry date of the domain name.

The Whois service and the data associated with domain names

What is Whois?

The Whois service is a search engine specific to the database of domain names. Also known as the Whois directory, or simply Whois, it is made available by the registry manager. The AFNIC Whois service can carry out searches on the databases of domain names ending in .fr, .re, .tf, .yt, .pm and .wf. The search result is a file showing the name of the holder, the anniversary date of renewal of the domain name, as well as the contact details of the administrative and technical contacts designated by the holder. In order to protect privacy, the information about individuals is restricted.

I want to find a domain name that ends with a generic extension (.com, .net or .org). Can I also use the AFNIC Whois service?

The AFNIC Whois search engine is limited to the databases of domain names managed by the French registry, i.e. domain names ending in .fr, .re, .tf, .yt, .pm and .wf. To carry out searches on generic extensions, AFNIC recommends using the generic NIC engine: http://www.generic-nic.net

I do not want my personal details to appear in the Whois directory. Is this possible? What does "restricted information" mean?

Yes it is possible, and the protection of personal data for individuals by AFNIC is even systematic. The personal data (name, address, phone, etc.) you provided when registering your domain name are recorded but they are replaced by the words "Restricted information" on the form corresponding to your domain name in the Whois directory. These contact details are available, upon substantiated request sent to the Legal Department of AFNIC, and under certain conditions. Note that this protection does not apply to the business contact information provided by the representative of a corporation (holder, administrative contact or technical contact).

How can I contact the holder / administrative contact of a domain name for which the data is restricted information?

If you need to contact the holder or the administrative contact of a domain name for which the data is restricted, click on the link "contact the administrative contact for this domain name". The link can be found in the form for the domain name in question returned by the AFNIC Whois search engine. Your message will be immediately sent to the administrative contact. AFNIC does not guarantee, however, that the recipient of the message will actually read it or reply to it.  If your contact request is related to a dispute, there are other means of lifting the holder's anonymity.

Can I obtain a list of all the domain names managed by AFNIC via the Whois directory?

No, the Whois search engine is not designed to return a list of domain names, only the form corresponding to the requested domain name if it has already been filed. If you want a broader list and on a regular basis, AFNIC has two additional services: one free of charge, which involves receiving every day for seven days the list of domain names registered each day with the .fr, .re, .tf, .yt, .pm and .wf extensions, and the other fee-paying service, known as the Qualified Whois Data Access Service (SQUAW), which provides organizations that request it, and under certain conditions, with a list of .fr domain names registered each day, together with the names of the registrars who have registered the domain names, and the names of the holders of each domain name (except for individuals who opt for access to that information to be restricted). The use of this list is subject to a license agreement and to special restrictions.

What is the Qualified Whois Access Service and what is its purpose?

The Qualified Whois Access Service (SQUAW) is a fee-paying service involving daily extraction from the database of domain names registered with the .fr extension. This service provides the list of domain names registered each day under the .fr TLD, together with the names of the registrars that have registered the domain names, and the names of the holders that have registered the domain names (with the exception of individuals who opt for access to that information to be restricted). It is generally used by companies wishing to protect their rights on the Internet, and by registrars offering automated alert services on the fraudulent use of domain names (cybersquatting, spamming). Access to this service is subject to a license agreement and to special conditions.

Who can subscribe to the Qualified Whois Access Service and under what conditions?

Subscription to the Qualified Whois Access Service is for organizations (legal persons) that can prove they have been in existence for more than 3 years and have their head office in France. Each application is reviewed in terms of the added value of the proposed service, based on the data provided by AFNIC. The applicant organization must also provide guarantees as to the use of this information in accordance with the rules issued by AFNIC. AFNIC carries out regular checks.

Is it possible to know who has subscribed to the Qualified Whois Access Service?

Yes, AFNIC makes a list of subscribers to the Qualified Whois Access Service publicly available. The list can be checked here.

Settling disputes

What types of disputes occur involving a domain name with the .fr (or .re, .pm, .tf, .wf, .yt) extension?

There are two kinds of disputes over domain names. The first is due to the fact that a domain name is by nature unique in a given namespace. It is allocated in accordance with the naming charter, but on a first-come, first served basis. This does not prevent other people from considering themselves justified in claiming other rights on the domain name in question. A second category of litigation involves malicious practices such as cybersquatting, typosquatting etc.

What should I do in case of a dispute over a domain name under a TLD operated by AFNIC ? Is access to the various procedures subject to certain conditions?

To settle your dispute, AFNIC provides all right holders with unrestricted access to a range of procedures that can be used in or out of court.

For further information, please see the Dispute Resolution Policy for French domain names.

I want to settle this dispute amicably; how should I proceed?

To settle your dispute amicably, it is up to you to contact the holder of the domain name in question and seek the best solution (transfer or deletion of the domain name). AFNIC is never involved in the negotiations. It simply provides you with the means to access the contact details of the holder via the Whois search engine or after a request for the disclosure of personal data or further to a court order to lift the holder's anonymity.

How can I contact the holder of a domain name in dispute whose personal data is restricted information?

The first thing to do is to contact the holder of the domain name in dispute. You can do so using the contact form accessible through the link "Contact the administrative contact for this domain name" in the Whois form for the domain name in question. AFNIC sends your message but does not guarantee that the holder will read it or reply to you. If this first attempt is ignored, you can send AFNIC a substantiated request for the disclosure of the holder's personal data. A third option is to go to court to obtain an order for the holder's anonymity to be lifted.

I have filed a request for the disclosure of personal data. How quickly will Afnic reply?

Afnic analyses applications received as quickly as possible. Incomplete applications are not processed and are subject to an email with a request for supplementary information.

The holder of a domain name who has opted for their credentials to be restricted information is not informed of a request to disclose their identity.

If the reply is positive, an email is sent to the applicant at the address indicated on the form.

If the reply is negative, Afnic sends a letter to the applicant; the latter may bring the case before a court to have it order the disclosure of the holder’s identity, and send the order to Afnic.

The contact details provided by Afnic in reply to my request for the disclosure of personal data are inaccurate. What should I do?

Report it without waiting to Afnic, as it is a breach of the naming policy (the update obligation is indicated in the naming policy). Based on this report, Afnic checks the data; it ensures in particular the eligibility of the holder and the accuracy of the administrative information provided.

To do so, there is a verification form that must be accompanied by a minimum number of supporting documents to substantiate the request.

This operation, which takes a maximum of two months from the start of the characterization of facts control, may result in the deletion of the domain name. However, the issuer of the report does not have any priority in re-registering the domain name after it has been deleted.

I have obtained a court order to lift the anonymity of a holder; should I serve it on AFNIC?

No, it will not be necessary. Just send us a copy of the order by e-mail, fax or post. The requisite measures will be taken as quickly as possible.

Caution: for all other types of orders, service by bailiff is MANDATORY.

I cannot settle amicably a dispute over my domain name with a TLD operated by Afnic. Are there other alternatives to get this domain name?

Afnic offers an extra-judicial procedure for resolving disputes: SYRELI. Read the terms on the dedicated page.

You may also bring the case in front of a court or contact an organization specialised in mediation.

What is the "Alternative Dispute Resolution" (ADR) procedure?

The "Alternative Dispute Resolution" procedure is an out of court method available to those who consider that a third party has violated their rights by filing a domain name. The possibility to request an WIPO expert to examine the validity of a complaint is momentarly suspended.

Today, you can request a dispute resolution procedure SYRELI by Afnic, or contact an organization specialised in mediation or bring the case to the relevant court.

How can I pay the SYRELI costs of proceedings?

 

 

Under the delay defined in the SYRELI Rules and Regulations, the Claimant can pay by :

 

  • credit card,
  • wire transfer,
  • check or
  • administrative order (only for administrative entities).

 

For each way of payment, the useful information is available on the electronic platform at the time of payment.

 

 

 

Afnic handles the claim as soon as the payment is received.

The personal data of the holder of the disputed domain name is restricted information; can I still undertake a Syreli procedure?

You can request their identity to be disclosed if you think that knowing the holder's identity is important for your case file.

However, the request to open proceedings with Syreli can be initiated without knowing the identity of the holder.

Afnic will forward the information to the holder referenced in its database.

Where can I find information on dispute resolution for domain names under the TLDs operated by AFNIC ?

Read ou section "Dispute resolution", you will find many pieces of information to help you.

How can I recover a domain name filed by a third party?

There are several ways of challenging the legitimacy of a domain name:

1 / amicably: contact the domain name holder directly in order to find an amicable solution (the transfer or deletion of the domain name).

If the holder is an individual who has opted for their administrative contact details to be restricted information, there are 3 solutions to obtaining their contact details:

- Use the tool for contacting the administrative contact for the domain name at the following address

- Apply for the disclosure of the holder’s personal information to Afnic.

- Appeal to a court to have it order the disclosure of the holder’s identity, and send the order to Afnic.

2/ The out-of-court alternative: the "SYRELI" dispute resolution procedure (pursuant to the French Electronic Communications and Telecommunications Act).

Afnic provides an out-of-court dispute resolution procedure that allows anyone entitled to bring action to ask it to transfer or delete a disputed domain name falling within the scope of the cases provided for in Article L. 45-2 of the French Electronic Communications and Telecommunications Act.

For further information on this procedure, please go to the following address: https://www.syreli.fr/

 

You can also bring the case before an organization specializing in mediation.

3 / The judicial procedure: bringing the case before a court is entirely possible. Afnic will enforce the decision handed down and served on it by a court officer.

Can Afnic intervene if I have a dispute with my registrar?

 In general, Afnic cannot interfere in a dispute between a holder and an accredited registrar.

According to the legal provisions of the naming policy, Afnic has no role as an intermediary between the registrar and the holder and cannot be held liable for the competence of registrars.

You must therefore decide what action you should take, but it is useless to involve Afnic in the dispute.

However, certain provisions of the Registration Contract that bind Afnic and the registrar may provide for the intervention of Afnic if the registrar fails to meet its obligations (e.g. provision of the auth-info code).

I am a minor: can I file a domain name under a TLD managed by Afnic?

Since the Act of 22 March 2011  individuals residing in the territory of the European Union can register domain names under the .fr TLD without being of adult age.
It is therefore possible for a minor to file a domain name under any TLD managed by Afnic if it's everyday deeds of modest importance. However, parents' should note their liability in the event of acts committed or damage caused by minors.

Can I ask the Afnic to block, suspend, delete or transfer a domain name?

Afnic is not entitled to suspend, block, delete or transfer a domain name of its own initiative, or at the request of others.

The legal framework sets out the conditions under which these actions are permitted.

For further details on the implementation of each of these actions, please refer to Chapter 6 of the naming policy.

I need a history file on the registration of a domain name. Can Afnic provide one?

The history file for a domain name is only communicated to the holder of the domain name or to the accredited registrar responsible for it.

In this case, simply send an email to juridique@afnic.fr indicating the logins entered when creating the domain name, namely:

   * the name, address and date of birth if the holder is an individual (a document attesting to the identity of the holder is required)

   * the business name, head office registration no. (SIREN), trademark / brand number if the holder is a corporate entity.

Upon receipt of the above, Afnic sends the requested history file by email, or by post if explicitly requested.

Note: If the request is issued by the competent authorities, the history file is communicated regardless of the status of domain name or its holder.

Can I apply for a certificate of "ownership" of a domain name?

The certificate of "ownership" is only communicated to the domain name holder at the time the request is made or during the period in which the latter held the domain name.

To receive a certificate, simply send an email to juridique@afnic.fr indicating the logins entered when creating the domain name, namely:

   * the name, address and date of birth if the holder is an individual (a document attesting to the identity of the holder is required)

   * the business name, head office registration no. (SIREN), trademark / brand number if the holder is a corporate entity.

Upon receipt of the above, Afnic sends the requested history file by email, or by post if explicitly requested.

I am a victim of identity theft. What should I do?

In case of identity theft involving the registration of a domain name, the first thing to do is to file a complaint with the police and send the complaint to the Afnic support department.

Using this complaint, Afnic will ask the registrar by e-mail to contact its client and provide an answer within 48 hours.

In parallel, it will proceed to suspend the domain name (and all of the domain names that have been opened with your contact details).

This 48-hour period may be extended once if no reply is forthcoming;

 After that, the domain names will either be maintened because the registrar will confirm the owner's identity or deleted by the registrar (or by Afnic if the registrar fails to take action).

I receive spam / have noticed that website content is illegal / am a victim of phishing: What should I do?

Afnic does not have the authority to deal with claims of this type.

There are solutions possible for each type of litigation:

-        Reporting the content of a website or conduct that is unlawful or contrary to public policy or morality. In this case, you should go to the reporting platform of the Ministry of Interior, Overseas departments and territories to report the infringement: www.internet-signalement.gouv.fr

-        In the case of "Phishing" you should go to the website of the Phishing-Initiative Association: http://www.phishing-initiative.com/.

-        In the case of spam, you should go to the national reporting platform for SPAM in connection with the competent authorities: https://www.signal-spam.fr/.

 

You should report all of these cases. In case of serious disturbances, intervention by the police and/or the courts may be necessary to stop it.

My personal data are displayed on a site; what should I do?

Afnic has no jurisdiction over site content. Since it is not responsible for website content, it cannot take action further to a complaint concerning the communication of personal data on a website. You should contact the manager of the publication usually shown in the "legal notice" sections. If no reply is forthcoming, the applicant should contact France's data protection authority (CNIL).

Afnic only intervenes on personal data submitted as part of the registration of a domain name: it will transfer the access request to the registrar in charge of the domain name so that it makes the requisite corrections.

ZoneCheck

What is the purpose of a ZoneCheck?

ZoneCheck is the tool used by AFNIC to check that a domain name is properly configured in technical terms. Since December 17th, 2012, AFNIC doesn't use this check for all domain names submitted by registrars involving an activation request or a request for a technical change (update [tech]). 
 For your information, a site dedicated to the ZoneCheck program has been created for developers: it is both modular and customizable, and can be used to change the configuration file.

ZoneCheck has indicated that there are errors. I do not understand why.

Installing a domain name server is not a simple operation. It must be done by professionals capable of understanding all the mechanisms involved. This is what registrars are for. If you have any questions about the technical information provided by the ZoneCheck tool, you should contact your registrar who will explain the points you do not understand.

How can I test a "reverse" zone with ZoneCheck?

ZoneCheck can be used to check various technical points before installing a zone. It can also be used to check a reverse zone. 
 To do this with an IPv4 network address, you need to know the network address of your system, which almost always ends with a 0. You need to remove the 0 at the end of address, to reverse the numbers in your IP address and add a suffix: in-addr.arpa.
 This gives you your "reverse zone".


To test the reverse zone of an IPv6 network, just as for IPv4, take the network address, reverse the bytes and add the suffix ip6.arpa. 



Example 1 - Reverse for an IPv4 network:
 network address of the installation: 194.98.30.0.
 The corresponding reverse zone is: 30.98.194.in-addr.arpa. 
 This reverse zone can be tested by the ZoneCheck tool to check its operation.



Example 2 - Reverse for an IPv6 network:
 network address of the installation: 2001:660:3003::/24.
 The corresponding reverse zone is: 3.0.0.3.0.6.6.0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa. 
 This reverse zone can be tested by the ZoneCheck tool to check its operation.

Can I know the IP addresses of the AFNIC machines so that I can allow them to carry out the ZoneCheck tests?

None of the tests performed by ZoneCheck mean special privileges must be given to the AFNIC servers. The technical demands are necessary for the proper functioning of the zone and must be met for any machine on the Internet.

In particular, AFNIC does not request permission to carry out zone transfers (AXFR) and does not require that the name servers be recursive for the Registry (on the contrary, cf. the Warning concerning open recursive servers).

Members

My contact details (e-mail or postal address, phone, etc.) have changed; how do I inform you?

You can modify the information by sending us an email on juridique@afnic.fr containing the information to be changed and your member number.

Can I change my password?

No, you cannot do it yourself; the feature is not yet operational. To change your password, send an e-mail to the address juridique@afnic.fr. The change will be made as soon as possible.

I have lost my login

Contact support via the contact form on the website. Our staff will reply as soon as possible and tell you what to do.

As a member, am I entitled to use the AFNIC logo in my communication?

The answer is no. On the other hand, AFNIC provides a special "AFNIC Member" logo which can be downloaded to your personal "My Account" area (after identification).

What are the consultative committees? Can I take part?

The consultative committees are forums for thought and discussion on the major current issues and strategic policy options involving AFNIC and its members. You will be invited to participate twice a year, depending on your type of membership. There are two consultative committees, one comprising Registrar members and the other comprising User members (individuals and entities). The result of these exchanges can be submitted to the AFNIC Board of Directors. The elected representatives of the Registrars and Users chair these committees and are welcome to invite votes on proposals to be fed back to the Board of Directors.

What are the AFNIC working groups? Can all the members join them?

The working groups are platforms for more informal discussion and dialogue and are open to all AFNIC members, regardless of the type of membership. These groups meet regularly and continue their daily discussions through mailing lists. AFNIC currently has three working groups open to members: Legal Affairs, Marketing and Communication, and Technology.

IDN

What does IDN mean?

IDN means "Internationalized Domain Names".

Originally, domain names (or to be more precise, host names, since a domain name is generally reserved to declare hosts) could only comprise a subset of ASCII characters. "International" or "internationalized" domain names are those containing characters other than ASCII characters (e.g. Arabic, Chinese, accented characters).

The standard used at AFNIC is called IDNA2008.

Can all browsers and e-mail systems use IDNs?

Although the technology is not new, the answer is no. In most cases you can use your IDN like any other domain name, but you should expect to be occasionally compelled to use its ACE form, because only this form ensures full compatibility with all your tools.

IDN technology will become increasingly transparent to applications in their latest versions, but you should remember that we are still in a transitional phase, which requires knowing and using both forms in order to cope with every situation.

How will my domain name be displayed in my browser?

IDN technology is not new, and many registries have allowed the registration of domain names of this type for several years. Current browsers are therefore capable of understanding a Web site address using an IDN when it is entered in the navigation bar.

The possibility should not be excluded that ACE forms sometimes resurface, for example when the domain name used does not exist, in which case the error messages from your browser or your search tool sometimes revert to this form of domain name. On older versions of browsers, it is also possible that the differences between the IDNA2003 and IDNA2008 versions (the latter being the version implemented by AFNIC) are not processed as one might think.

It is therefore advisable to use a recent version of your browser. This means that in the vast majority of cases the use of "www.thé-ou-café.fr" instead of "www.xn--th-ou-caf-c4ah.fr" will not pose any problem, and it is this form that you see displayed in your browser and search tools.

What characters have been retained by AFNIC for the registration of IDNs under the extensions it manages?

Here is the list of characters retained for the opening of IDN registrations:

- 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z ß à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ñ ò ó ô õ ö ù ú û ü ý ÿ œ

Specifically, how does an IDN work?

The DNS protocol was not originally defined to be restricted to a set of characters. It is its use and other limitations of "the age" (the protocol is 30 years old) that have resulted in the definition of the syntactic rules we know today.

The purpose of the IDNA2008 standard is to reconcile human needs and technical constraints by allowing the use of all forms of writing in domain names. All these forms of writing and the characters they use are defined and grouped together under a standard called Unicode.

Since the syntactic rules for domain names require the use of single letters of the Latin alphabet ("a" to "z"), as well as numbers, hyphens, and periods to separate labels, a mechanism for the canonical formation of Unicode domain names and for encoding them has been developed to create names consistent with these rules. While in applications such as web browsers, Unicode names will be displayed, their DNS resolution will be performed using their encoded form (this is normally transparent to the user who should not have to handle this type of domain name).

What are ASCII Punycode, ACE, and LDH?

ASCII (short for "American Standard Code for Information Interchange") is a widely-used computer standard for encoding characters, but which is half a century old. Strictly speaking based on 7 bits (short for BInary digITS), it can only encode 128 characters. A subset (referred to as the LDH, for "LETTER-DIGIT-HYPHEN"), in addition to the dot character "." used to separate the labels that compose it, is used to represent a domain name.

In order to be used in the Domain Name System (DNS), IDNs are no exception to this rule. For this purpose, they are converted using a reversible algorithm called Punycode that from the Unicode version of the domain name will produce a version called ACE ("ASCII Compatible Encoding") only containing LDH characters.

Example: www.caféetthé.fr

  • unicode : www.caféetthé.fr
  • ACE : www.xn--cafetth-dyae.fr

How many characters can my IDN contain?

For all the extensions managed by AFNIC and in accordance with the DNS protocol which imposes this limitation (among others), the length of the label of a domain name cannot exceed 63 characters.

For example the domain name exemple.ceci-est-un-domaine-de-test.fr is 38 characters long (the characters from the first character "e" to the "r" of “.fr” are counted as well as the "." characters) contains three labels, with respective sizes of 7, ("exemple"), 27 ("ceci-est-un-domaine-de-test ") and 2 ("fr") characters.

The calculation of the maximum size (63 ASCII characters) is performed after the conversion of the IDN to ACE for use in the DNS.

Examples:

www.cafeetthe.fr contains 3 labels (respectively containing 3, 9 and 2 characters) and is 16 characters long.

While www.caféetthé.fr is not 16 characters long as one might think. This is because for the DNS (for which the 63-character limit applies), it is the ACE form which counts. In this form, the domain name is written www.xn--cafetth-dyae.fr, and the labels are therefore respectively 3, 2 and 16 characters long, which means the domain name contains 23 characters, or 7 characters more than one might think.

What will the price be of an IDN under the extensions managed by AFNIC?

There is no specific billing for registering an IDN under the .fr, .pm, .re, .tf, .wf, or .yt extensions. As with all the other domain names under the extensions indicated above, it is decided independently by each registrar, depending on the services (hosting, etc.) they provide. You are invited to compare the prices and services offered by the accredited registrars.

For your information, on 1 January 2011, the amount charged by AFNIC to the registrar ranges from 4.80 to 5.80 Euros depending on the option package chosen by the registrar.

When will I be able to register IDNs with AFNIC?

AFNIC will be launching the registration of IDNs in 2012. The opening will take place in two stages:

  • From May 3 to July 3, 2012: a right of priority will be granted to holders of ASCII domain names to register the corresponding IDNs (this is known as the “sunrise” period with a "Grandfathering" rule).
  • From July 3, 2012 onwards: opening of the registration of IDNs to one and all according to the "first come, first served" rule (there will be no more constraints of the ASCII type).

How do I register the IDN corresponding to my domain name: theetcafe.fr?

From May 3 to July 3, 2012 (the sunrise period with the "Grandfathering" rule), you must contact the registrar that manages your ASCII version of the domain name (theetcafe.fr) so thanks to the "Nic -Handle" (the single AFNIC holder reference used by the registrar) listed for the domain name, we can recognize you as having a right of priority and can allocate you the requested IDN version.

If the registrar in question does not register IDNs, you must transfer your domain to another registrar that offers the service and ask for the IDN version as soon as the transfer has taken place.

After the sunrise period, you can use any registrar you wish to register an IDN.

What are the "ASCII-equivalent" domain names that allow me to register IDNs during the sunrise period with the "Grandfathering" rule?

When you want to register a IDN during the sunrise period, check that you already have the "ASCII-equivalent" version with the same registrar as the one through which you want to register the domain name. To know the "ASCII-equivalent" version of a domain name, simply refer to the list of 67 characters allowed and ensure there is a match, character by character, between the Unicode version of a character and its "ASCII-equivalent" version.

Here are a few examples:

IDN

m

ü

l

l

e

r

-

s

t

r

a

ß

e

.

f

r

ASCII equivalent

m

u

l

l

e

r

-

s

t

r

a

ss

e

.

f

r

If you have "muller-strasse.fr" you are entitled to register "müller-straße.fr" with the same registrar, for the same holder (i.e. with the same "Nic-Handle").

IDN 1

p

ê

c

h

é

s

.

f

r

IDN 2

p

é

c

h

é

s

.

f

r

IDN 3

p

è

c

h

e

s

.

f

r

ASCII equivalent

p

e

c

h

e

s

.

f

r

If you have "peches.fr" you are entitled to register "pêchés.fr", "péchés.fr", "pèches.fr" etc. with the same registrar, for the same holder (i.e. with the same "Nic-Handle").

It is important to note that for a single "ASCII-equivalent" version (as can be seen in the second example above), there may be a very large number of associated IDNs.

During the sunrise period with the "Grandfathering" rule, can I register an IDN when I do not hold the ASCII-equivalent version of the domain name?

To obtain the right of priority for the IDN, you must register the ASCII-equivalent version of the domain name beforehand, if it is available. Then you can obtain all the IDN-equivalent versions you want.

If the ASCII domain name is not available, you must wait until 3 July 2012. As of July 3, 2012, you can register the domain names you want in whatever order you want.  You can obtain the IDN version even if you do not hold its ASCII-equivalent version.

Will IDNs registered during the sunrise period (from May 3, 2012) be immediately functional or must the holder wait until July 3, 2012?

Holders can use their IDN as soon as it has been registered, and will not have to wait until 3 July 2012.

Can a domain name such as .com.fr (or .tm.fr, .asso.fr, .nom.fr) in its ASCII version be registered during the sunrise period with the "Grandfathering" rule?

No, these zones were closed to registration on December 6, 2011. It is therefore impossible to record the IDN versions of these domain names under zones that have been closed or under top-level extensions.

If I have an ASCII domain name under one of the extensions managed by AFNIC, is the priority rule valid for all the other extensions managed by AFNIC?

No, the priority rule only applies to the extension under which the ASCII-equivalent version has been registered.

For example, the current holder of "toto.fr" can register "tôtô.fr", "tötö.fr", etc. but cannot register the domain name "tôtô.re" unless it also holds the ASCII domain name "toto.re". However, if another holder holds the domain name "toto.re", the holder in question has a right of priority if it wishes to register an IDN corresponding to the ASCII-equivalent version under this extension.

AFNIC has indicated that because of the "Grandfathering" rule I have a right of priority to register an IDN, but I still cannot register it: why not?

For example, if you own the domain name:

"eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.fr" with a label 63 characters long (the maximum allowed) you could claim the following IDN:

"ééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééééé.fr" but the encoded version of this domain name is:

"xn--9caaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa.fr" with a label 69 characters long, which is not allowed in the DNS protocol.

Similarly, if you owned the domain name ssss.fr, you might think you can register ßß.fr, but this is impossible because our naming policy prohibits the registration of domain names in which the label has only two characters (except if at least one of them is a number).

Can an IDN be registered "under" the domain name, and if so, how?

It is already possible to register IDNs under a domain name. As long as the domain name complies with established standards and therefore is properly encoded, there are no other constraints. To avoid any ambiguity, it is even possible to create IDNs using other characters than those authorized by AFNIC, as long as the domain name registered with AFNIC meets our constraints.

For example, αβγδ.amoureux-du-grec-ancien.fr ("xn--mxacde.amoureux-du-grec-ancien.fr") may exist.

I hold an ASCII domain name and I would like to have its IDN version. Am I required to register it with the registrar which already manages my domain name?

  • During the sunrise period with the "Grandfathering" rule, yes, you have to go through the registrar with which you registered the ASCII version, so that through the "Nic-Handle" (the single AFNIC holder reference used by the registrar) listed for the ASCII domain name, we can recognize you as having a right of priority and can allocate you the requested IDN version.
  • After the sunrise period, you can use any registrar you wish to register an IDN.

Can I register an IDN with any Registrar accredited by AFNIC?

No, because registrars do not necessarily register IDNs. We recommend that you contact them to confirm if they offer this type of registration if it is not specified on their site.

My registrar does not accept domain names registered in Unicode; what should I do?

IDNs exist in 2 forms, the Unicode version and the ASCII encoded version (which begins with "xn--"), known as ACE.

It is more than likely that even if your registrar does not accept an IDN in its Unicode form, use of the same IDN in its encoded form should pose no problem.

On our website, AFNIC will provide a conversion tool that can "simply" solve the problem.

However, since the use of the character "-" (hyphen) was banned for many years in positions 3 and 4 of the domain name, it is possible that your registrar carries out tests to check that the domain name registered does not violate this rule. To validate this hypothesis, we recommend you contact your registrar as quickly as possible so that it can tell you the ways in which you can register your IDNs.

What should I do if the registrar that manages the ASCII version of my domain name does not register IDNs?

In this case, you can:

  • Try to register the IDN in its encoded form, i.e. in its ASCII encoded version (which begins with "xn--"), known as ACE. On its website, AFNIC provides a conversion tool that allows you to retrieve the encoded form. However, since the use of the character "-" (hyphen) was banned for many years in positions 3 and 4 of the domain name, it is possible that your registrar carries out tests to check that the domain name registered does not violate this rule. To validate this hypothesis, we recommend you contact your registrar as quickly as possible so that it can tell you the ways in which you can register your IDNs.
  • Transfer the domain name to another registrar that offers the service and ask for the IDN version as soon as the transfer has taken place.

The IDN I have chosen already exists, but ends with another extension (.tf, .yt, .com, .eu etc.). Can I still register it?

Yes, you can register it. Like trademarks, homonymous domain names can coexist in different namespaces. To date there are 260. The cases of identical domain names in different namespaces are therefore frequent. Before registering your domain name, however, make sure that it does not infringe the rights of third parties (such as companies, trademarks or individuals) eligible to register a domain name in France.

An IDN corresponding to my ASCII domain name has been registered. How can I recover it?

After July 3, 2012, the rule which applies to the registration of domain names in the French namespace is that of first come, first served. However, if you think that the registered domain name infringes your rights, you can use one or other of the existing procedures in cases of dispute.  

An IDN has been registered that infringes my rights. What can I do?

If you think that the registered domain name infringes your rights, you can use one or other of the existing procedures in cases of dispute. We advise you to read our dispute management policy.

I have an ASCII domain name that has been subject to prior review. What must I do to obtain its IDN equivalent?

During the sunrise period with the "Grandfathering" rule, you have a right of priority to register it; this is why you must submit an application to reserve the IDN, providing evidence of your legitimate interest and your good faith with the registrar of your choice.

For the registration requirements, please visit our website.

As of July 3, 2012, anyone may register the IDN-equivalent version of your ASCII domain name provided that the applicant is the first to provide evidence of their legitimate interest and good faith.

I hold an ASCII domain name but I did not exert my right of priority during the sunrise period with the "Grandfathering" rule. A third party has registered the IDN-equivalent version. Can I invoke the SYRELI procedure?

The right of priority that is granted during this period does not prevent you from taking action to defend your rights if you think a third party has infringed them.

You are therefore fully entitled to lodge a complaint using the SYRELI procedure if you feel that the use of a domain name is liable to infringe your rights.

However, it is important to note that you are responsible for proving that you have an interest in taking legal action, that the domain name in dispute is liable to infringe intellectual property rights or your personal rights, and that there are no legitimate grounds for the holder’s interest or that the latter is acting in bad faith. We invite you to consult the rulings handed down by AFNIC under this procedure at the following address https://www.syreli.fr/decisions.